Sungai Kehidupan: Suatu Pengingat Diri 

Semester ini saya mengikuti perkuliahan pendidikan sosial budaya (PSB). Dari namanya saja mungkin kita akan dengan mudah menebak kira- kira apa yang diajarkan atau dibahas pada mata kuliah ini. Ya, mata kuliah ini mrmbahas hal- hal seperti: (1) karakter dan pendidikan, (2) komunikasi sosialisasi, (3) manusia dan peradabannya, dan (4) kepemimpinan. Pertama kali mendengar PSB jujur saya menganggap pembelajaran akan membosankan. Nah, pada suatu hari saya bertanya (baca: kepo) kepada teman sekelas yang sudah mengambil mata kuliah PSB dengan dosen yang sama seperti yang akan mengajar kelas yang akan saya ikuti. ” Eh, Ta, gimana ya pelajaran PSB sama Bu X (nama dirahasiakan), asik nggak?, enak nggak? ngasih nilainya gimana?”. Heheheh seperti penyelidik aja ya pertanyaaan saya. Ya harap maklum kawan- kawan. Saya ini tipe orang yang sering “ngepoin” dosen/guru yang akan/sedang mengampu mata kuliah yang saya ikuti. Mulai dari asalnya mana, lulusan mana, karyanya apa, dll. Hehe, maafkeun saya ya Bapak/ Ibu dosen. Eh kok ceritanya kemana- mana ya jadinya. Balik lagi ke cerita utama. Setelah aku menanyakan hal seperti itu pada Ita (teman sekelas), dia menjawab “Ehm, cara mengajar Ibunya enak kok, jelas. Soalnya Ibunya udah berpengalaman dan udah Doktor. Pembelajarannyapun lebih berfokus pada pendekatan berbasis masalh. Terus banyak cerita- ceritanya yang menginspirasi. Asiklah pokoknya dan ngasih nilainya juga enak.” Ehmmm jadi penasaran saya. Apakah benar yang dikatakan teman saya ini. Akan saya buktikan. Hahahaha (ketawa mulu deh dari tadi :).
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Summary: The Principles of Meaningful Learning

I. Introduction

As we already know that when the learners be able to gathering information from their environment and construct the knowledge by themselves in order to understand about something deeply, then here a meaningful learning occurred. In order to reach the meaningful learning, the role of teacher as facilitator is needed. On facilitate their student, the teacher must aware that students have different preconception with the material that they will be learned. Moreover, the conceptual and factual knowledge is very important to develop students’ competence in an area of inquiry, and meta-cognitive approach is also needed to help students control their own learning.

Based on the above explanation, at least four principles must be reached to create a meaningful learning. They are new understanding begin with the prior understanding and experiences of the students, students’ preconception must be engaged in the learning, factual knowledge and conceptual frameworks are important towards meaningful learning, and students self- monitoring can be attained by a meta-cognitive approach. We will be explained these principles of meaningful learning below.

New understanding begins with the prior understanding and experiences. The existing (prior) knowledge of the learner, determined the next learning. It also leads to the development of conceptions that can acts as obstacles to learning. Moreover, the teacher should be aware that every student has different prior knowledge and experiences to begin new understanding or learning. Therefore, the teacher should be able to drawn on knowledge and experiences that students commonly bring to classroom but are generally not activated with regard to the topic of study.

Students’ preconceptions must be engaged in the learning process. The teacher must aware that every student has different preconceptions and existing knowledge about something. Consequently, as a teacher must assimilate the different preconception of students with the materials or topics that they will be learnt to their student. At least, there are three strategies which can be applied by teacher in the learning process to engage students’ preconception in order to make a meaningful or effective learning.

  1. Drawn on knowledge and experiences that students commonly bring to classroom but are generally not active with regard to the topic of study.
  2. Provide opportunities for student to experience discrepant events that allow them to come to terms with the shortcoming in their everyday models.
  3. Provide students with narrative accounts of the discovery of (targeted) knowledge or the development of (targeted) tools.

Factual knowledge (procedural fluency) and conceptual frameworks are important towards meaningful learning. The meaningful learning is similar with the learning with understanding. In this case, the word understanding refers to conceptual understanding (comprehension of concepts, operations, and relations) and procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibility, accurately, efficiently, and properly). When the proficiency of student in procedural or conceptual understanding too little, it possible for students to understanding something not deeply. Therefore, to understand topics or materials that be learned, students are expected to have good proficiency in factual knowledge and conceptual understanding and also make a link between both of them.

We also need to know that the link between the factual knowledge and a conceptual frameworks help us to understand that both a big ideas and facts are very important to understand about certain materials or topics. Then, memory of factual knowledge is expanded by conceptual knowledge, while conceptual knowledge is clarified as it used to help organize constellations of important details. Moreover, Because of it, the distinguishing factor between the experts and novices placed on organized sets of idea. The experts have more organize sets of idea than novices.

Student self- monitoring and reflection can be attained by a meta-cognitive approach. In the psychological literature, “meta-cognition” is used to refer to people’s knowledge about themselves as information processors (Donovan & Bransford, 2005). From this definition, we obtain information that when the learners try to understand something deeply, they must develop their ability to take control of their own learning, consciously define learning goals, and monitor their progress in learning. One way that may do by teachers to introduce a meta-cognitive approach to their student is by saying “You are the owners and operators of your own brain, but it came without an instruction book. We need learn how we learn.”

Indeed, appropriate kinds of self- monitoring and reflection are needed to support learning with understanding in a variety area. In addition, teaching practices that emphasize self-assessment can help students become more meta-cognitive about their own thinking and provide opportunities for discussion in order to make a most sense from the different views between teacher and students. To be optimally effective, meta-cognitive approach need to be taught in the context of individual subject area.

There are three instructions that support meta-cognition. They are an emphasis on debugging, internal and external dialogue, and seeking and giving help. Emphasize on debugging help students to finding where their error, why their answer is an error, and correcting their answer. Then, dialogue; give the chances for students to advance their thinking and monitoring their own understanding. The last, indeed, students must have enough confidence on engage problems, try to solve them, and seek help when they are stuck, and helping can also increase the meta-cognitive awareness of the helper as he or she takes into consideration the thinking of the student being helped.

II. The similarities between video entitle Facilitating Meaningful Learning Experiences and book entitle How Student Learn: Mathematics in the Classroom about the principles of meaningful learning.

According to the video and the book as mentioned above, we can find some similarities on discussion about the principles of meaningful learning.

  1. Both in the video and in the book mentioned that a new understanding or learning begin with the existing understanding (knowledge) and experiences of the learners.
  2. Both in the video and in the book mentioned that the meaningful learning is attained when the learners can construct their own knowledge.
  3. Both in the video and in the book mentioned that in order to make a meaningful learning, teachers should be able to play their role as facilitator not as the center of learning.
  4. Both in the video and in the book mentioned that reflection is very needed to support learning with understanding in a variety of areas.
  5. Both in the video and in the book mentioned that in the meaningful learning, learner is active not passive.

III. The differences between the video entitle Facilitating Meaningful Learning Experiences and the book entitle How Student Learn: Mathematics in the Classroom about the principles of meaningful learning.

According to the video and the book as mentioned above, we can find some differences on discussion about the principles of meaningful learning.

Distinguishing aspect According to the video According to the book
The difference between the experts and novices The number of connection of synapses of an expert more abundance than a novice The experts have more organize sets of ideas than novices
When the meaningful learning occur The meaningful learning occur when the learners be able to construct their own knowledge The meaningful learning occur when the learners be able to construct their own knowledge and monitoring their progress by themselves
What must be linked to help students understand new knowledge (certain topics or materials) Students can connect among their existing knowledge and afterwards connect them with the new knowledge by assimilation or accommodation way Between factual knowledge and procedural fluency must be linked in order to help students understand new knowledge (certain topics or materials)
Learning approach or strategy to make a meaningful learning Facilitating approach Meta-cognitive approach

References

Donovan, S., Bransford, J., e.(2005).How Students Learn: Mathematics in the Classroom.  Washington, DC: The National Academic Press.

  1. Grady Roberts. (2012). Facilitating Meaningful Learning Experiences. Global Education Lab, University of Florida. Video. October 22,2012.

Sepenggal Rahasia Perjalanan Hidupku

Masa kanak- kanak adalah masa dimana kita bebas bermain, bebas untuk jajan (permen, es krim, mainan, dll), tidak memikirkan tugas- tugas sekolah yang banyak dan sepertinya masa kanak- kanak adalah masa yang masih terbebas sama yang namanya masalah. Lalu bagaimana dengan kehidupanku saat masa kanak- kanak? Apakah sama seperti layaknya kehidupan anak- anak lain semasa kanak- kanak? Ya kehidupanku saat masih kanak- kanak sama seperti layaknya kehidupan kanak- kanak lain. Lalu apa yang menjadi perbedaannya?. Omelan, cubitan, dan jeweran mamak selalu ada setiap hari saat masa kanak- kanakku. Bahkan percaya atau tidak sampai sekarang masih ada bekas cubitan itu di pahaku. Mamak melakukan hal itu karena aku membandel, tidak mendengar nasehatnya, bangun kesiangan, telat mandi, tidak mau membereskan tempat tidur, tidak mau menyapu lantai dan halaman rumah, dan jenis kenakalanku lainnya. Jadi tidak mengherankan kalau saat itu pasti dapat dipastikan aku akan menangis setiap hari sebagai akibat kenakalanku yang juga aku lakukan setiap hari. Bahwa saat kanak- kanak aku hanya memiliki satu mainan yaitu sebuah robot- robotan. Kalau mau mainan ya mainannya yang tidak menggunakan robot- robotan dan sejenisnya. Paling ya mainan petak umpet, gobak sodor, polisi- polisian, bal- balan (sepak bola) dan jenis permainan tradisional lainnya. Jadi masa kanak- kanakku adalah masa untuk bermain dan menangis ria akibat “kejahatan” mamak padaku. Pada masa kanak- kanak, mamak dan bapak juga mendisiplinkanku dalam hal bertata krama (unggah- ungguh), seperti bagaimana cara menghargai orang lain dan bertindak. Mamak dan bapak juga berpesan bahwa tata karma harus tetap dijaga sampai meninggal.
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